Stop Online Piracy Act

The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) is a law (bill) of the United States proposed in 2011 to fight online trafficking in copyrightedintellectual property and counterfeit goods. Proposals include barring advertising networks and payment facilities from conducting business with allegedly infringing websites, barring search engines from linking to the sites, and requiring Internet service providers(ISP) to block access to the sites. The bill would criminalize the streaming of such content, with a maximum penalty of five years in prison.

User-content websites such as YouTube would be greatly affected, and concern has been expressed that they may be shut down if the bill becomes law. Opponents state the legislation would enable law enforcement to remove an entire internet domain due to something posted on a single blog, arguing that an entire online community could be punished for the actions of a tiny minority. In a1998 law, copyright owners are required to request the site to remove the infringing material within a certain amount of time. SOPA would bypass this “safe harbor” provision by placing the responsibility for detecting and policing infringement onto the site itself.

Lobbyists for companies that rely heavily on revenue from intellectual property copyright state it protects the market and corresponding industry, jobs, and revenue. The US president and legislators suggest it may kill innovation. Representatives of theAmerican Library Association state the changes could encourage criminal prosecution of libraries. Other opponents state that requiring search engines to delete a domain name begins a worldwide arms race of unprecedented censorship of the Web and violates the First Amendment.

On January 18, English WikipediaReddit, and several other internet companies coordinated a service blackout to protest SOPA and its sister bill, the Protect IP Act. Other companies, including Google, posted links and images in an effort to raise awareness. An estimated 7,000 smaller websites either blacked out their sites or posted some other kind of protest. A number of other protest actions were organized, including petition drives, boycotts of companies that support the legislation, and a rally held in New York.

Source : Wikipedia

When Unrest Begins, Bloggers Roll Their Sleeves Up

As the protests spread across Tunisia for weeks, many international news organizations scrambled to cover the unrest just before President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali fled on Jan. 14, ending 23 years of authoritarian rule. But Amira al-Hussaini was all over the story.

Ms. Hussaini oversaw a handful of bloggers who gathered information about the mounting protests in Tunisia for Global Voices, a volunteer-driven organization and platform that works with bloggers all over the world to translate, aggregate and link to online content. As part of its reporting, she said, the site turned to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, where other bloggers and hundreds of ordinary people stepped into the role of citizen journalists and shared their experiences, cellphone photos and videos online.

“There was a whole army of people who did the job of reporters, sharing what was happening on the streets,” said Ms. Hussaini, 38, who lives in Bahrain and is the organization’s regional editor for the Middle East and North Africa.

Soon after the earthquake and tsunami struck Japan on Friday, the volunteer bloggers for Global Voices in East Asia put together special coverage of the devastation, sharing citizen videos and translating posts on Twitter, including calls for help from people stranded on the upper floors of buildings. Over the weekend, with fears fueled by the prospect of a second explosion at a nuclear plant, they monitored the conversation on the social Web, reporting how people were exchanging information to keep safe and questioning the use of nuclear energy in an earthquake-prone region.

“Our job is to curate the conversation that is happening all over the Internet with people who really understand what is going on,” said Rebecca MacKinnon, a former Tokyo bureau chief for CNN who founded Global Voices with Ethan Zuckerman, a technologist and Africa expert, while they were fellows at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society. “We amplify, contextualize and translate what these conversations are and why they are relevant.”

Ms. MacKinnon and Mr. Zuckerman both said the network grew out of an international meeting of bloggers held at Harvard in late 2004. They saw an opportunity to leverage content produced on blogs and social media sites like Twitter outside of the United States and to help create a global community for them and their work. “Our goal is to give you the voices of the people in a country like Tunisia, day in and day out, whether they are cementing rebellion or talking about local news and sports scores,” Mr. Zuckerman said. “We don’t parachute in. We are there all the time. “

The organization is now an independently operated nonprofit, financed mostly with private donations and grants from foundations. It is led by Ivan Sigal, who studied the role of citizen media in conflict zones at the United States Institute of Peace, before taking over as executive director in 2008. With no physical office, he oversees a virtual team of about 20 staff editors and more than 300 volunteer bloggers and translators outside the United States.

Mr. Sigal said that the site averages about a half million visits a month. Many of the volunteers also post on their own blogs and social media sites, including Ms. Hussaini, who is known as Justamira on Twitter. He said the organization does not accept any government money. “We want it to be perceived as being neutral,” he said.

Mr. Sigal said that having editors work with volunteer bloggers brought traditional journalistic values to the operation, like checking facts and sources. “But it is less about a finished story and more about a conversation,” he said. “When we build a story, we include links back to the original sources, so you can follow the story as far down as you want to. We want you to leave our site and go find the original, find more.”

Clay Shirky, a professor at New York University and author of “Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations,” said that one of the most important roles that Global Voices has played is translating online content for an international audience.

“This started with the idea to provide broader coverage,” he said. “It turns out that it is much more critical than they had imagined because the other international news sources are being dismantled.”

In addition to news from Japan and the continuing coverage of the rebellion in Libya and violence in Yemen, the site includes stories about the growing influence of online communities on Russian politics, the developing political crisis in the Ivory Coast and International Women’s Day in Colombia. There was also a report from South Korea about why so many people online were discussing a 26-year-old actress who committed suicide in March 2009 and left 50 letters, just made public, listing the people she said had exploited and abused her.

But the unceasing tumult in the Middle East and North Africa in recent weeks has dominated the platform. It has meant 18-hour days for Ms. Hussaini, whose work is now followed closely on the site and on Twitter by journalists from traditional media organizations, including Andy Carvin of NPR, who has been regularly curating and publishing posts on Twitter, creating a news wire about the unrest in the region for weeks.

She spent 12 years working as a news editor for an English-language paper in Bahrain before volunteering at Global Voices as a blogger in 2005. She became editor for the region in 2006 and knows it well. Still, she said that she was caught by surprise that the turmoil across the Middle East unfolded not far from her home in Bahrain.

In Libya, where rebels are now battling the country’s leader, Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi, she said it had been much more difficult to get information, which she said had more to do with fear than with lack of access to the Internet. “The citizen media scene is small in Libya,” Ms. Hussaini said. “We find it very difficult to find voices here and in other places where there is a lot of censorship and a lot of fear from the regime. Bloggers being arrested is a fact of life in some countries.”

For those bloggers from Global Voices who are jailed or run into difficulties because of restrictions on freedom of expression, the organization now offers help. Global Voices Advocacy is run by Sami Ben Gharbia, a highly respected blogger who is a founder of Nawaat, a blog about Tunisia, and an activist who until recently lived in exile from Tunisia for 13 years.

Mr. Zuckerman said that the organization was committed to supporting freedom of speech as well as to keeping up with the developments unfolding all over the world. “People are not always interested in knowing what is happening in Yemen,” he said. “We have been waiting for people to pay attention to this corner of the world for a long time, and now we are ready to tell their stories.”